Reading your merchant statement and finding the rates and fees you're being charged can be like playing "Where's Waldo?". One reason is because there are nearly as many different statement formats as there are merchant acquiring companies. Also, because of how competitive the industry has become, many monthly statements don't completely disclose the rates being charged. And sometimes they are completely hidden.
I know of banks that don't even send a statement out. If a merchant wants details of what they paid they have to logon to an online account to find it.
It's War Out There!
One reason for this is the competitiveness. You have to remember that credit and debit cards make up part of a 2 trillion dollar industry. Money is like a magnet - it attracts Most merchants are being contacted continually by competing processors trying to get them to switch processors, by promising "lower rates", etc.
So, to prevent a sales agent from another processing company from taking a merchant away - some processors make it as hard as possible for a competitor's sales rep to walk in to a business, analyze a merchant statement, and do an 'apples for apples' comparison.
That being said, there are still some basic keys to look for when reading your statement. Here's what I look for in analyzing a merchant statement, in order:
- One: The pricing structure - how has the account been set up? Which pricing model does it employ? Is it using tiers (e.g. 3-tier; 4-tier, etc.) or - is it using "Interchange Plus"? (NOTE: most merchants are on a tier pricing model, which, in my opinion guarantees they're being overcharged. Also, there are other pricing structures but tier pricing is by far the most common)
- Two: The monthly fees (sometimes called "Other") - next, I look to see what the monthly fees are. This can include: a statement fee; monthly service fee; account maintenance fee (normally, you'd only see one of these although I've seen two - or, you may see the equivalent fee but using a different term); PCI fee; batch fee; and gateway or access fees. Any miscellaneous, but not monthly fees can also show up here - e.g., an annual fee or semi-quarterly.
- Three: Processing Fees - this is where the discount rates will be listed. If you are on tier pricing the best statements will print an itemized list showing the "qualified", "mid-qualified", and "non-qualified" (the 3 tiers) rate. If you are on Interchange Plus, you'll see a list showing all the different cards you took, followed by the actual interchange rate for the card, the "dpi" (discount per item), plus the processors mark-up expressed as basis points and a transaction fee (or per item, depending on the term used to list it).
- Four: Authorization Fees - here's where you'll find fees that go to VISA and MC. They'll show up listed as access, authorization, and /or WATTS fees. You could also find here AVS fees (address verification); assessment fees; brand usage fee; risk fee; settlement fees, IAS fee (Issuer Access & Settlement).
- Five: Third Party Fees - 3rd parties means networks other than VISA & MC that are included in your statement. This would include American Express, Discover, and the debit networks if you are using pin debit
Part of the problem in reading a merchant statement is different processors use different category names and different terms to identify charges. That's why I began by saying it can be like playing "Where's Waldo?" While there are common terms used for certain fees there is also a wide variation used, depending on the acquirer (the company you signed a merchant agreement with).
Again, part of this is due to an attempt to hide what's being charged and make it difficult for a competitor to analyze a statement. While that's 'somewhat' understandable - in my opinion it's a disservice to the merchant. Integrity demands transparency. Maybe if processors were more merchant oriented they'd have a lower turnover and would not have to worry about competition so much. At least that's my opinion.